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Vegetable production in plastic film solar greenhouses in Liaoning Province

greenhouses heated by solar radiation are called solar greenhouses. Plastic film solar greenhouse takes plastic film as transparent covering material, which has the characteristics of strong air tightness, good lighting and heat preservation performance, and low construction cost. It is especially suitable for planting vegetable crops in the cold winter or early spring in the vast rural areas of northern China. In recent years, with the unremitting efforts of scientific and technological personnel, through the improvement of greenhouse structure, the strengthening of internal and external multi-layer covering and heat preservation measures, the application of low-temperature and weak light resistant varieties, and the optimization of cultivation technical measures, the output and output value of greenhouse vegetables per unit area have been continuously increased, which has made the production of vegetables in plastic film solar greenhouse develop rapidly. 7. The experimental speed has developed rapidly, and it has become a pillar industry for farmers to get rich after the adjustment of agricultural industrial structure. On the basis of reviewing the development history of solar greenhouses in Liaoning Province, this paper introduces the current situation of vegetable production in plastic film solar greenhouses, and prospects the future development. 1 history of vegetable production and development in solar greenhouses in Liaoning Province * it is Fangdian and Fuzhou Bay in Dalian City, Ganwang Town, Haicheng city that used solar greenhouses to produce vegetables without heating in winter, dating back to the early 20th century. It spread to the suburbs of Anshan in the late 1930s. At that time, the facilities used were glass greenhouses with civil structures, which generally produced cold resistant leafy vegetables such as leeks and celery in winter and cucumber in early spring. According to the different structure of the front roof, it can be divided into slope type and inclined type, see 12 In the 1960s, the greenhouse construction materials gradually replaced the wood structure by cement prefabricated parts, the rear roof was changed into prefabricated slabs, the walls were mostly made of bricks and stones, cement columns instead of wooden poles, and the front roof was changed into cement prefabricated glass ribs. In the late 1970s, the development of the petroleum industry led to a significant reduction in the price of plastic products. The covering material of the front roof of the greenhouse began to use plastic film instead of glass. The front roof framework gradually changed to bamboo poles, bamboo pieces and steel. The greenhouse configuration became circular arch. Today's plastic film sunlight greenhouse appeared. Due to the application of new materials, the greenhouse cost was greatly reduced. 9. The temperature and light performance was significantly improved. In addition, the cultivation technology was improved, Since the 1980s, the development of solar greenhouses has reached a climax. By 1990, the area of plastic film greenhouse in jixiguang, a resource-based city in Liaoning Province, had reached 733 By 1996, only the area of plastic film solar greenhouse in Shenyang exceeded 7333. Before 1985, the main stubble of vegetables in Solar Greenhouse in Liaoning Province was winter leafy vegetables and spring fruits and vegetables. In 1985, the overwintering production of cucumbers in sunlight greenhouses in Fangdian Anshan and other places was successful, and then the overwintering production of warm fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and eggplants was also realized. In the area of 3841 degrees north latitude in China, the production of thermophilic fruit and vegetable technical rice by using plastic film solar greenhouse without heating is in the * * position in the world. Vegetable production of plastic film solar greenhouse in Liaoning Province Ning Wei, Yao Li, Feng Hui, Shenyang Agricultural University, Liaoning Shenyang 1612 current situation of vegetable production in Solar Greenhouse in Liaoning Province 2.1 production scale by the end of 1995, the national solar greenhouse has developed to 73312, mainly distributed in Northeast, North China and East China. The existing plastic film solar greenhouses in Liaoning Province cover an area of about 33000 square meters, mainly concentrated in southern Liaoning, western Liaoning and Northern Liaoning, and also distributed in Eastern Liaoning. 2.2 greenhouse structure type plastic film solar greenhouse has many structure types and different names. According to the shape of the front roof of the greenhouse, it is divided into two categories, with a total of 1 Mountain 1 light is like a room, tending to be a slope type 1 light greenhouse. In the above two types, there are various structural specifications. The common ones are the following 2.2.1 long back slope short back wall arch circular plastic film 1 light greenhouse. The span of this greenhouse is mostly 5.56 The ridge height is 2.3 2.4, the rear wall height is 0.50.61, the rear slope length is 3.0 Yang, and the front roof is arc-shaped, and the arc length is about 4.5, see 3 Its advantages are good heat preservation performance, and its disadvantages are that when the sun height angle is large in spring and autumn, the weak light bandwidth formed under the long back slope, the crop yield at the back of the greenhouse is low, and the land utilization rate is low, which is suitable for production and use in winter. 2.2.2 the horizontal projection length of the slope of the solar greenhouse on the ground is 1.21.51, and the elevation angle of the back slope is about 30 degrees, see 4 Because the front roof is lengthened, the back slope is shortened, and the height of the middle column is increased. Increase the lighting surface. Improved light transmittance. The weak light band under the slope of Lianghu 6 in spring and autumn is narrow, and the utilization rate of greenhouse land is high. However, the construction cost is increased by building a high back wall. After the rear wall is improved, the temperature drops rapidly at night, and the thermal insulation performance of the greenhouse is not as good as that of the long back slope type. This is a widely used type at present. 2.2.3 slope plastic film 1 light greenhouse ridge height is 3.03, The span is about 7.0, and the height of the front column is 0.8 The slope surface is covered with 3 degrees of silk. The back slope is on the left and right, and the horizontal projection length of the back slope ground is about 1.01. The greenhouse space of the back wall is large, the back slope is short, and the land utilization rate of the greenhouse is high. However, its lighting performance is not as good as that of the arched circular warm plug. It is difficult to increase the lighting angle of the front roof, and the front of the warm room is low, which is not convenient for operation. 2.3 cultivated vegetable crops due to the optimization of greenhouse structure and the progress of cultivation technology, at present, the vast majority of vegetable crops can be cultivated in solar greenhouse. Master 2 Start the experimental machine: turn on the source switch of the experimental motor, and save the following vegetables. 2.3.1 leafy sprouts, spinach, rape, fennel, coriander, etc. 2.3.2 onion and garlic leeks. Garlic shallot 2.3.3 eggplant fruit tomato eggplant pepper. 2.3.4 melons, cucumbers, cantaloupes, melons, watermelons, etc. In addition, there are beans, cowpeas, water pineapples and so on. 2.4 the vegetable cultivation in solar greenhouse with main stubble belongs to intensive vegetable production, and the stubble arrangement should be based on the principle of * greatly improving economic and social benefits. In Nianming production, only stubble vegetables are planted every year. By prolonging the growth time, the vegetable yield is increased, and the supply period is extended to increase the output value. The main types are leek production, cucumber production, tomato production, etc. The annual two crop production usually involves leisure in the winter * cold and summer * hot periods, and vegetables are cultivated in autumn and winter and winter and spring. It mainly includes the production of leek and cucumber in two crops a year, and the production of celery and cucumber in two crops a year; Cucumber production in two crops per year and tomato cucumber production in two recommended years. Multi crop production: produce more than 3 crops of vegetables every year, and plant continuously throughout the year. The first crop of winter celery, the second crop of spring cucumber, and the next crop of autumn tomato; Recommend leeks in autumn and winter, spring celery in the middle, autumn tomatoes in the next. 2.5 output value and economic benefits at this stage, the average output of fruits and vegetables in solar greenhouses in our province is about 10000kg6672 a year. The output value per unit area varies greatly between different crops and different stubbles in different years, with an average of about 150000 yuan, and a net income of 75105000 yuan 3 prospects for the development of vegetable production in solar greenhouses in Liaoning Province 3.1 optimizing the greenhouse structure the industrial and efficient agricultural engineering technology center of Shenyang Agricultural University, with the support of the Ministry of science and technology of the people's Republic of China, completed the optimization design of the structure and control facilities of northeast energy-saving solar greenhouses in 1997, and developed a new generation of plastic film solar greenhouses Liaoshen 1. According to different crop types and cultivation methods, Liaoshen 1 plastic film solar greenhouse is divided into series with net spans of 6.06, 57, 07 and 51 respectively. During the design and construction of Liaoshen 1 solar greenhouse, according to the climate in northern China and the characteristics of greenhouse production, the geometric parameters of the profile closely related to the greenhouse temperature and light performance * were optimized. The amount of light * is large. On the premise of ensuring safety, the steel consumption * should be reduced. Through the dynamic simulation of greenhouse environment, the heterogeneous composite wall red brick polystyrene board red brick with load-bearing, heat storage, heat insulation and heat preservation as the body is selected. According to the test, without heating in the middle * cold season of the year, the temperature difference inside and outside the greenhouse can reach more than 30 degrees Celsius, and fruit and vegetable production can be carried out in winter. The plastic film solar greenhouse has a span of 7.51 and a cost of about 68000 yuan per 66712. Leaders and experts from the Ministry of science and technology of the people's Republic of China believed that Liaoshen 1 type solar greenhouse is a new generation of popular solar greenhouse with industrialization development prospects in northern China. 3.2 improve cultivation techniques improve cultivation techniques should start with the regulation of temperature, light, water and fertilizer, make the environment suitable for biology, make the environment * meet the needs of vegetable growth and development as much as possible, and establish a standardized cultivation technique system. 3.3 low temperature stress in breeding special varieties is the limiting factor for prolonging the production season of fruits and vegetables in solar greenhouse and the expansion of cultivation softness. Weak light in winter is also easy to cause physiological obstacles of fruits and vegetables. The important way to solve these problems is to improve the resistance of fruit and vegetable varieties to low temperature and weak light stress, and cultivate special varieties for greenhouse production. 3.4 integrated pest control under the conditions of long-term low temperature and high humidity in solar greenhouse and continuous cultivation, some infectious diseases of vegetables, such as leaf mold, gray mold, Fusarium Wilt and so on, are more harmful. Controlling the occurrence and prevalence of diseases is the key to the success of vegetable cultivation and economic benefits in solar greenhouse. Applying pesticides in large quantities to prevent and control greenhouse diseases and pests will not only increase production costs, but also bring serious problems such as toxic environmental pollution and harm. The combination of ecological disease prevention and chemical control can effectively control the occurrence of greenhouse diseases and pests and reduce pollution, which is the direction of pest control in solar greenhouse. In short, solar greenhouse vegetable production, due to its simple facilities, energy conservation, significant economic and social benefits, is currently a dynamic agricultural industry, which will play an increasingly important role in the construction of the cabbage project in our province. 1 Wu Guoxing, et al. Protected vegetable production is practical for color picture utilization Daquan 1 Beijing Agricultural Publishing 2 Wu Guoxing. Cultivation techniques of vegetables in solar greenhouse 1 Shenyang Liaoning science and Technology Co., Ltd. Greenhouse construction and environmental regulation 1 Shenyang Liaoning science and Technology Press, in 1997, Shi Huiteng, who touched his life and knocked out the fox mail Meifu in youdieke

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